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Sanesco Health Glossary of Terms


The intermediary metabolite between L-tryptophan and serotonin. Unlike tryptophan, 5-HTP cannot be shunted into niacin or protein production. 5-HTP easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and is effective in increasing CNS serotonin synthesis.

Axis (HP/HPA)

A direct connection between two or more points. The HP axis is a direct connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary. The HPA axis is a direct connection between the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands. The plural of axis is axes for two and axii for three or more.


A group of neurotransmitters that are derived from the amino acids phenylalanine and/or tyrosine. Dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) are all catecholamines.

Coleus forskohlii

A source of forskolin, which increases cAMP. cAMP promotes melatonin synthesis by contributing to the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase, an important cofactor.


An exchange of information

Communication System

A sophisticated chemical relay network that dynamically exchanges information between every cell of the body. The Communication System integrates the body’s physiological systems, including the nervous, endocrine, digestive, and immune systems.

Communication System Management (CSM)

Sanesco’s clinical model that addresses the common root of many chronic symptoms and diseases, including obesity, ADD/ADHD, menopause, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. CSM utilizes functional laboratory assessments, expert analysis and interpretation, and Targeted Nutrition Therapy in concert to restore balance and sustain the long-term health of the body’s Communication System. There are three phases in each CSM module: Initial, Restoration and Maintenance.


A racemic source of “D” and “L” Phenylalanine. The “L” form is the precursor to L-tyrosine, which supports the catecholamine pathway. The “D” form promotes Phenylethylamine (PEA) and thus encourages beta-endorphin production.


A catecholamine present in the CNS in about equal concentrations to those of NE, dopamine functions actively as a neurotransmitter in its own right. It has roles in motor functions, the motivation and good mood we experience from positive reinforcement and reward, cognition and focus and working memory. Dopamine is a precursor for norepinephrine and is found where NE is found, both in the central nervous system and in the adrenal medulla.


A catecholamine that functions as both a neurotransmitter and as a hormone. It is produced from NE enzymatically, in both the brain and adrenal glands. Only small amounts of EPI are produced in the brain, relative to the more common NE, and its role as a CNS neurotransmitter is not well studied. In the periphery, however, adrenal epinephrine is the powerfully active, main stress hormone. Strong cardiac stimulation: raising the heart rate and contraction strength.

Folic Acid

A cofactor in methylation reactions and has been studied for its anti-depressant activity. Folic acid is essential in the formation of SAMe (S-adenosyl methionine) and may exert its effect on mood through this role.


(Gamma Amino Butyric Acid), an amino acid derivative, is the most important and widespread inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Its main job is to inhibit the brain’s most common excitatory neurotransmitters NE, Epi and glutamate.


An amino acid neurotransmitter, glutamate is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, exerting powerful stimulatory effects on neuronal tissue. It is also normally involved in learning and memory. Excess glutamate is dangerous to nervous tissue, causing excitotoxicity—neuron damage and death.


The hormones produced by the body’s endocrine system are an integral part of the Communication System. Just as the nervous system uses neurotransmitters to relay information, the endocrine system employs hormones in a similar fashion. Hormones are considered primary and critical to all metabolic function, and are produced under the direction of the master gland, the limbic hypothalamus, and its lieutenant, the pituitary.


Combines and coordinates diverse elements into a whole; forms, coordinates, or blends into a functioning or unified whole.

Integrative Medicine

The practice of combining conventional allopathic medicine with complementary and alternative approaches in an effort to create a comprehensive treatment plan. Integrative medicine incorporates many disciplines and includes medical doctors trained in alternative and/or complementary medicine, other licensed allied healthcare practitioners trained in various alternative and complementary disciplines, as well as those in the broader field of healing arts who work in conjunction with a medical doctor. The primary goal of the Integrative Medicine practitioner is to maximize the patient’s chances of experiencing optimal health and wellness by fortifying the body’s natural healing potential. It therefore emphasizes the use of protocols that are the least invasive, costly and/or toxic to the patient.


A well-studied peptide constituent of dairy. It is a superb anxiolytic without sedation properties. Technically, Lactium functions as a GABA receptor agonist. It uses the same GABA receptor, GABA that is used by the benzodiazepines to induce calm, but has none of the side effects common to the pharmaceutical approach: no drowsiness, disinhibition, memory loss, tolerance or addiction. It is a stress regulator, helping the body adjust to stressors, and can be used for both chronic nervousness or anxiety or acute stressors, such as exams, interviews, etc. Studies have shown no teratogenicity, no mutagenic effects and no toxicity, even at extremely high levels. Effects of supplementation are often felt after an hour, but a few days are needed to experience its full effect.


A peptide hormone synthesized from serotonin in the pineal gland. Primarily involved in proper sleep cycle function, it also serves as a potent antioxidant for the brain, heart and other tissues.

Mucuna pruriens

A natural source of L-dopa, the direct precursor to Dopamine.

N-acetyl L-cysteine

More bioavailable form of cysteine, a sulphur-bearing, essential amino acid that supports activity in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway. Cysteine also has anti-oxidant activity, directly aids in glutathione synthesis and supports both detoxification and methylation pathways.

N-acetyl L-tyrosine

An amino acid involved in catecholamine production that is converted to L-dopa by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. This is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway for all the catecholamines and is sensitive to feedback control. It is responsible for controlling downstream catecholamine levels and helps assure that biosynthesis or supplementation will not raise excitatory neurotransmitters too high.


Biochemicals that enable cells to “converse” with one another by providing instructions and feedback to communicate with the muscles, organs and glands. For example, neurotransmitters are responsible for signaling the quickening pulse of the heart, the release of hormones from the endocrine system, and the release of enzymes in the digestive system.


A catecholamine found within the central nervous system (CNS), and the primary neurotransmitter in the peripheral sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. It is also produced in the adrenal medulla. In the brain, NE functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter, responsible for our drive, ambition, alertness, focus and long-term memory (learning).

NSB(Neural Support Blend)

A proprietary blend composed of phospholipids, enzymes, and essential fatty acids to help optimize the benefits of our various formulas. Enzymes are added to help deliver the nutrients across the gut wall and remove any molecules that may promote inflammatory processes. Lecithin is included to provide choline and antioxidant benefits. Choline is a main building block of cell membranes and of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is involved in cell membrane signaling and lipid transport at the hepatic and cell membrane levels. EPA and DHA provide essential fatty acids, critical fats for both neuron structure and biochemistry.


Vitamin B5 metabolite, an adrenal support nutrient.

Pantothenic acid

(B5) is an important support for the adrenal gland. It is a component of coenzyme A (CoA), required for chemical reactions that generate energy from food. The synthesis of essential fats, (including myelin and cell membrane phospholipids), cholesterol, and steroid hormones, including cortisol, requires CoA, as does the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and the hormone, melatonin.

Potassium iodide

A source of iodine for the thyroid gland. Iodine is an essential mineral for thyroid hormone production.


(S-adenosyl methionine) is an important physiologic compound that occurs in every living cell. SAMe is probably second only to ATP in the variety of reactions in which it serves as a cofactor. It is a methyl donor for the synthesis of epinephrine and is a cofactor in the formation of phosphatidylcholine, vital for cell membranes, and in the formation of melatonin, glutathione, cysteine and taurine. SAMe crosses the blood-brain barrier and has been shown to have anti-depressant properties.


A trace mineral with anti-oxidant properties that may provide protection from toxins, particularly mercury.


A non-essential amino acid. It can be made in the body from threonine, but does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It serves, however, to assist peripheral glycine production. Serine is needed in the metabolism of fats in the body and has efficacy in the immune system. Serine needs cofactors B3, B6 and folate.


A monoamine neurotransmitter found in small quantities in the CNS, blood platelets, and, more abundantly in the enteric nervous system of the gut. Its function in the CNS is primarily inhibitory, working with GABA to prevent over-excitation.

Siberian ginseng

(Eleutherococcus senticosus) is a premier adrenal adaptogen, boosting adrenal function when low and calming it down when in excess. Much research has been done on eleuthero’s ability to help the adrenal glands meet the demands of stress. Energy and endurance are associated with its use.


The physiological response to stimuli. Though the term “stress” is often considered as only a psychological response, it is important to realize that it should be understood as any disturbance of the body’s homeostasis that can affect the function of the nervous, endocrine, immune, digestive or any other physiological system.


A patented, enzymatically-synthesized source of pure theanine. Theanine is a non-essential amino acid originally found in green tea. It is absorbed through the brush-border membrane in the large intestine and transported directly to the brain where it stimulates the generation of Alpha brain waves. Alpha wave generation in the brain induces an awake, alert and relaxed physical and mental condition. Theanine is also a GABA agonist and an excellent anxiolytic.


A regularly interacting and interdependent group of items forming a unified whole.


A non-essential amino acid. It is an inhibitory neurotransmsitter on its own and is considered the second most powerful inhibitory neurotransmitter next to GABA. It can also bind to GABA receptors, increasing GABA function. Supplemental taurine has been commonly relied upon for its anti-convulsant and anxiolytic properties.

Trimethylglycine (Betaine anhydrous)

A methylating agent, and a source of glycine, it supports SAMe production/recycling.

Targeted Nutritional Therapy(TNT)

Sanesco’s line of formulas designed to address the Communication System imbalances found through testing. TNT formulations may be used as anchor products during the initial therapeutic phase, following a baseline test. Anchor formulations are used to make initial adjustments to neurotransmitter levels for immediate relief of some symptoms. The ancillary formulations are used to combine with the anchor products and increase their efficacy or be used in their place. The systemic line of TNT formulas are products designed to address a specific symptom, i.e. insomnia, when the patient needs immediate symptom relief.

Vitamin B12

A methyl donor and thus serves as a cofactor for endogenous SAMe, serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. B12 is, in fact, involved in many CNS biochemical reactions. Because it supports positive mood, B12 is often used in anti-depression therapy. The methylcobalamin form is the most bioactive in the CNS.

Vitamin B6(P5P)

Pyridoxal 5 phosphate is the active form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). This form is included here due to frequent difficulty in hepatic production of P5P from pyridoxine. Synthesis of serotonin and most proteins is B6-dependent. Whenever amino acids are supplemented, vitamin B6 must also be used.